International journal of diabetes and metabolism
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Zinc is known to modulate antiviral and antibacterial immunity and regulate inflammatory response. This effect may underlie therapeutic efficiency of chloroquine known to act as zinc ionophore. However, further clinical and experimental studies are required.
Illness Knowledge Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Magyarországon a KSH szerint több mint 1 millió ismert cukorbeteg él. A diabetes karbantartásához elengedhetetlen a betegek tudásának, készségeinek és önhatékonyságának növelése és fenntartása.
Introduction Zinc is an essential metal being involved in a variety of biological processes due to its function as a cofactor, signaling molecule, and structural element.
It is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as the functioning of the reproductive, cardiovascular, and nervous system 1. At the same time, the most critical role of zinc is demonstrated for the immune system.
Briefly, zinc regulates proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and functioning of leukocytes and lymphocytes 2. Zinc plays a signaling role yakubovich kezelése cukorbetegség in the modulation of inflammatory responses 3. It is also a component of nutritional immunity 4.
These studies included almost 3 million adults from around the world, yet the results were remarkably consistent, the authors of the analysis noted.
Correspondingly, alteration of zinc status significantly affects immune response resulting in increased susceptibility to inflammatory and infectious diseases including acquired immune deficiency syndrome, measles, malaria, tuberculosis, and pneumonia 5.
Earlier data demonstrate that populational Zn status is associated with the prevalence of respiratory tract infections in children and adults 67.
Moreover, certain groups of people, including infants, especially preterm ones, and elderly, are considered to be at high risk of zinc deficiency and its adverse effects 9.
Under zinc deficiency condition, organisms are more susceptible to toxin-producing bacteria or enteroviral pathogens that activate guanylate and adenylate cyclases, stimulating chloride secretion, causing diarrhea and diminishing absorption of nutrients, thus exacerbating an already compromised mineral status.
In addition, zinc deficiency may impair the absorption of water and electrolytes, delaying the termination of normally self-limiting gastrointestinal disease episodes During chronic deficiency, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines increases, influencing the outcome of a large number of inflammatory, metabolic, neurodegenerative and immune diseases Diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes 12atherosclerosis and obesity 13impaired cognitive function 14as well as age-related macular degeneration AMD may be due to zinc deficiency, worsening chronic inflammation and triggering oxidative stress.
The viruses from the Coronaviridae family are zoonotic viruses that can be transmitted from animals to humans.
Treatment and Management of Type 2 Diabetes
The bat is considered the reservoir for these viruses, but other intermediate animals can also transmit the virus to humans Currently, the prevalence of COVID exceeds 1, cases resulting in 92, deaths worldwide COVID predominantly affects the respiratory system resulting in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome 24leading to the requirement of mechanical ventilation The risk is also increased by modern life in which individuals are exposed to a multitude of chemicals, even in low doses that in the long-term predispose to chronic diseases and metabolic disturbances 27 - Preexisting chronic metabolic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases 32and obesity 33 are considered as risk factors for increased COVID susceptibility and mortality.
Due to the clearly demonstrated role of zinc in immunity 2and impaired zinc status in ageing 35metabolic diseases including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases 13it is speculated that zinc compounds may be used as an adjunct therapy in COVID treatment 36 for increasing antiviral resistance Of note, zinc was earlier suggested as the potential agent for immune support and prevention of H1N1 influenza 'swine flu' Zinc is considered as the potential supportive treatment in therapy of COVID infection due to its immune modulatory effect, as well as direct antiviral effect However, the existing data will be only mechanistically discussed international journal of diabetes and metabolism this review, as direct data on anti-COVID effects of zinc are absent to date.
Of note, recent trials have indicated efficiency of chloroquine antiviral activity as a treatment of COVID 40although the intimate mechanisms of its antiviral activity require further investigation Moreover, the authors also propose that chloroquine-mediate zinc influx may underlie anticancer activity of the compound In this view zinc supplementation without chloroquine might have similar positive effects without adverse side-effects of chloroquine treatment Hypothetically, such an effect may be also observed using other zinc ionophores like quercetin and epigallocatechin-gallate 44 with substantially lower toxicity, although clinical trials supported by experimental in vitro studies are required to support this hypothesis.
In view of the presence of similar critical Zn-containing sites, Zn-ejector drugs e.
- MTMT2: HORMONES-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
- Она потянулась рукой к низу его живота.
- Да, - продолжил он, - тогда я сумею наконец забыть кошмар этих последних нескольких дней и буду помнить только то, что тебя отняли у меня - как и мою первую жену, - хотя я все еще отчаянно люблю Роберт в гневе метался по комнате.
- Evpatoria kezelése cukorbetegség
Speth et al 50 demonstrated international journal of diabetes and metabolism zinc exposure µM was shown to reduce recombinant human ACE-2 activity in rat lungs. Although this concentration is close to physiological values of total zinc, the modulating effect of zinc on SARS-CoVACE2 interaction seem to be only hypothetical The latter may not only alter viral particle removal, but also predispose to bacterial co-infection as observed for influenza virus In turn, Zn supplementation was shown to improve ciliary length in bronchial epithelium of Zn-deficient rats 55as well as increase ciliary beat frequency in vitro Therefore, zinc may hypothetically ameliorate nCoVinduced dysfunction of mucociliary clearance.
Generally, zinc was shown to be essential for respiratory epithelium due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity 57as well as regulation of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and Claudin-1 58thus increasing its barrier functions.